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The aim of the course is to provide participants with an overview of morphometric approaches to studying morphological integration and modularity. The concepts of integration and modularity will be introduced and discussed in different contexts (e.g. development, individual variation, evolutionary change). The theoretical basis and application of different methods for analyzing integration and modularity in geometric morphometric data will be presented. Lectures will be combined with hands-on demonstrations of the analyses. Participants are encouraged to bring their own morphometric data for analysis and discussion in the course.
Dr. Chris Klingenberg
(University of Manchester, United Kingdom).
Dr. Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno
(Transmitting Science, Spain).
Graduate or postgraduate degree in Life or Earth Sciences (including palaeontologists no matter the degree), basic knowledge in statistics and personal computers. Knowledge of Geometric Morphometrics. All participants must bring their own personal laptop. We encourage participants to bring along their own morphometric data.
1. Brief review of geometric morphometrics: Procrustes fit, shape space, covariance matrices, etc.
2. PCA for characterizing patterns of integration.
3. Partial least squares and integration.
4. Practice: patterns of integration.
5. Indices of integration.
6. Modularity: concepts and analysis.
7. Modularity hypotheses: where do they come from?
8. Practice: Indices, allometry and comparisons.
9. Comparing patterns of integration.
10. Developmental integration and modularity.
11. Evolutionary integration and modularity.
12. Practice: integration & modularity.
13. Allometry as a factor of integration.
14. Multilevel analyses of integration and modularity.
15. Presentations of group work.
- Klingenberg CP, Zaklan SD (2000) Morphological integration between developmental compartments in the Drosophila wing. Evolution, 54: 1273–1285.
- Klingenberg CP, Badyaev AV, Sowry SM, Beckwith NJ (2001) Inferring developmental modularity from morphological integration: Analysis of individual variation and asymmetry in bumblebee wings. American Naturalist, 157: 11–23.
- Klingenberg CP (2003) Developmental instability as a research tool: Using patterns of fluctuating asymmetry to infer the developmental origins of morphological integration, Pages 427–442 in Polak M, ed. Developmental instability: Causes and consequences. New York, Oxford University Press.
- Klingenberg CP, Mebus K, Auffray J-C (2003) Developmental integration in a complex morphological structure: How distinct are the modules in the mouse mandible?. Evolution & Development, 5: 522–531.
- Klingenberg CP (2004) Integration, modules and development: Molecules to morphology to evolution, Pages 213–230 in Pigliucci M, Preston K, eds. Phenotypic integration: Studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes. New York, Oxford University Press.
- Klingenberg CP (2005) Developmental constraints, modules and evolvability, Pages 219–247 in Hallgrímsson B, Hall BK, eds. Variation. San Diego, Academic Press.
- Breuker CJ, Gibbs M, Van Dyck H, Brakefield PM, Klingenberg CP, Van Dongen S (2007) Integration of wings and their eyespots in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution), 308B: 454–463.
- Klingenberg CP (2008) Morphological integration and developmental modularity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 39: 115–132.
- Klingenberg CP (2009) Morphometric integration and modularity in configurations of landmarks: Tools for evaluating a-priori hypotheses. Evolution & Development, 11: 405–421.
- Singh N, Harvati K, Hublin J-J, Klingenberg CP (2012) Morphological evolution through integration: A quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Journal of Human Evolution, 62: 155–164.
- Klingenberg CP, Duttke S, Whelan S, Kim M (2012) Developmental plasticity, morphological variation and evolvability: A multilevel analysis of morphometric integration in the shape of compound leaves. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 115–129.
For further information contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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